Luku 6. Employment s. 62 - 71
Labour market participation among Somalis is relatively low; data at the national level reveal that approximately 29 percent of Somalis have a paid job. Labour market participation among Somali women is particularly low: in 2009, 17 percent of women in the age group 15 – 65 had a job.
Self-employment, that is having your own company, is not found in the national statistics concerning the Somalis, with 0.8 percent of the population in the age group 15–64 being self-employed.
s. 64: Jobs are generally in the lower segments of the labour market: men mentioned cleaning, manufacturing and the flower auction in Aalsmeer. Women are involved in cleaning, and the care sector, such as elderly care.
Hollantikin paljastuu rasistiseksi ja syrjiväksi maaksi. Työpaikoilla vaaditaan hollannin kielen taitoa:
There are many reasons for Somalis’ vulnerable position in the labour market. First, language is a problem, in particular for those who arrived after 2006. Although some of the men do speak some Dutch, their proficiency is not adequate and is a serious obstacle in the search for work.
Lisää syrjintää, Somaliassa suoritettu koneinsinööritutkin ei kelpaakaan Hollannissa:
s. 65: Both men and women discovered that the integration certificate did not guarantee a job: additional training and education was necessary to prepare for the labour market. Some interviewees found that their Somali or Kenyan certificates were often not recognised, and they were obliged to take additional training in the Netherlands, although they possessed relevant qualifications.
Syrjintä vain jatkuu: naisilla huivin käyttö häiritsee työn saamista:
One of their cases concerned a woman who was refused a job because of her headscarf. Indeed, clothing is a factor that can influence access to the labour market. Examples mentioned in the interviews and focus group discussions included refusal of jobs because of the dress of the applicant.
Tension between the expression of religion and work was mentioned frequently, showing different experiences.
The structure of the Dutch labour market, with entrance requirements based on formal education, was also frequently referred to as problematic for Somalis. As neither their formal certificates nor their informal qualifications are recognised, it is hard to find a job.
s. 67: Not much is known about the financial position of Somalis. In 2005, over 50 percent of Somali households had a low income, of around €850 per month.107 As noted in section 6.1 above, a large group of Somalis are not in paid employment. Many of them can be classified as unemployed: they are not in paid work, but would like to be. Others can be classified as economically inactive, that is, outside the labour force. There are several reasons for this: poor health or disability (18 percent), studies (33 percent), school (15 percent) and – most important – child care (25 percent). The Dutch welfare system is the main source of income for this last group.
Sossun tädit eivät pidä rahalähetyksistä:
s. 68: She checks all my expenses, I need to tell her exactly how I spent the money. Two months ago, I sent €100 to my family in Somalia, it was months ago that I did so, and since they take care of my child, I just couldn’t wait any longer ... well, she accused me of being too generous. (42-year-old woman)
Tulevaisuuden hahmottaminen on somaleille vaikeata:
According to some experts, financial planning constitutes a large problem for many households. They are not used to planning expenses, and find it difficult to do long-term planning.
We had some clients, young couples, who arrived in the city, and started a family: one child, another one, and then they ran into problems, did not expect that having children affects the household income, that you need to buy food, diapers, buy medication in case the child is ill, etc. It is not a case of deliberate bad planning, they are just not aware of the system, how it works.
Vähistä rahoista pitää vielä sitten osa lähettää Somaliaan:
Supporting the family in Somalia, particularly parents, is also a burden on many household budgets, as they remit a substantial part of their income to family and friends in Somalia back home. This practice is part of Somali culture and tradition, an Islamic duty and hard to avoid.Luku 7. Housing s. 72 - 77
Sometimes you visit your clients at home, in their apartment, and then you notice their shabby conditions, only a few chairs, etc. All refugees receive a loan, to furnish their apartment, but sometimes they do not spend it on furniture, they send it to Somalia, to support their families which are highly depended on
Hollannissa turvapaikan saaneet hajasijoitetaan eri kuntiin. Kunnilla on velvollisuus ottaa pakolaisia vastaan ja tarjota asunto:
Those asylum seekers who succeed in obtaining refugee status in the Netherlands are helped to find suitable housing by the COA. In the past this often took a long time, although municipalities are obliged to offer appropriate accommodation to refugees within three months. Refugees can try to state their preferences for where they would like to live, but only in cases of medical urgency is this taken into account. The dwellings offered to refugees can be located anywhere in the Netherlands.
Somali refugees like to live together, but they cannot always succeed. In the Netherlands we have a dispersal policy. We, as the Dutch Council for Refugees, can help to negotiate in urgent individual cases. But we cannot do a lot because almost everybody wants to live in the larger cities and that is just impossible.
Each municipality in the Netherlands is thus legally required to host a number of refugees, depending on the number of inhabitants of the municipality (its “housing target”, de huisvestings taakstelling). The result of this dispersal policy is that refugees are scattered all over the Netherlands and often isolated from family members and friends. It is estimated that around 60 percent of refugees do make use of the offers made by municipalities. Refugees are not obliged to make use of this housing system, they can also look for a house themselves.
Hollannin syrjivä pankkijärjestelmä estää somaleja ostamasta asuntoa. Muslimi ei voi maksaa lainasta korkoa eikä Hollannista löydy korotonta lainaa antavia pankkeja:
During one of the focus groups it became clear that it is difficult for some Somalis to buy a house due to the lack of banks in the Netherlands that provide mortgages regarded as halal, that is, compliant with their religious principles relating to the charging of interest on loans. Somali families with sufficient income that have lost their rights to the social housing sector are limited to the private housing market with its very high rents.
Hollanti ei edes tarjoa isoille somaliperheille kunnollisen kokoisia asuntoja:
s. 75: The number of rooms available per household is also the lowest for the Somali population (3.3 compared with 3.9 for Afghans). This again can be explained by demographics, but it might also indicate that Somalis’ housing situation is worse than that of other refugee groups because Somali families are often large.Luku 8. Health and social protection s. 78 - 90
s. 80: Somalis’ low use of health and social services could of course be an indicator of good health, but based on insights from qualitative research about Somalis’ health, it seems more likely that they experience barriers to accessing health care.
s. 82: Concerns were also raised about the increasing costs of health insurance in the Netherlands. Focus group participants pointed out that taking care of and sending money to relatives in Somalia or paying the rent came before personal health.
Tulkkipalvelut taitavat olla Hollannissa huonommalla tasolla kuin Suomessa:
Language problems appear to be at the root of many misunderstandings between clients and doctors. Doctors in asylum seeker centres need to work with interpreters, in hospitals there are often interpreters as well, but in general, doctors usually do not have a budget to bring in interpreters. In that case people are asked to bring someone who can interpret for them, which obviously is not ideal.
Varsinkin henkisten vaivojen ilmaantuessa Koraanin lukeminen auttaa parhaiten:
s. 83: When Somalis do not feel welcome or understood by Dutch health-care workers they may look for alternative solutions. Imams play an important role in curing people in the Somali culture.
If someone develops mental illness it may be interpreted in a traditional way. So rather than calling the hospital or the psychiatrist, they may opt for a Koran reading. The imam will read the Koran to this person to calm him/her down and it may work for a while, but it is no long-term solution.
Oma maa kullan kallis, varsinkin jos lapsilla viiraa päästä:
s. 84: Sometimes children with mental health or other problems are sent back to Somalia because their parents do not trust the Dutch care system and fear that the problems will only become worse in the unfamiliar Dutch context.
Somali women face one specific health problem: female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female circumcision or female genital cutting. The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines FGM as "all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.” The practice came to the Netherlands in the 1990s, with immigration from countries where FGM is practised, including Somalia. At the moment it is estimated that there are around 30,000 women with FGM living in the Netherlands. Most of them are from Somalia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea or Kurdish Iraq.
In the reception centres 35 percent of all women have undergone FGM, most of whom fall within the reproductive age. The situation requires discussion among doctors and other health-care workers.
In 1993 the Dutch government officially declared all forms of female genital mutilation as intolerable and forbidden in the Netherlands.
If FGM is carried out by one of the parents, the prison term can be increased by one-third. In cases where the parents arrange the procedure, pay or provide means that will be used for FGM, or assist during FGM, they are liable as well.
The risk of FGM, however, remains high when families visit their home country. Estimates of the number of girls who have the operation in their country of origin are between 40 and 50 girls a year for all children in the Netherlands coming from risk countries.
s. 86: Another specific health risk for Somalis is tuberculosis. The Association of Community Health Services (GGGD) in the Netherlands recently started a project on tuberculosis in collaboration with Pharos. Somalis tend to suffer from tuberculosis quite often, which obviously is a health risk for the whole society.
Somaliaan ei ole turvallista palata, mutta lapset sinne voi lähettämään oppimaan oikeiksi somaleiksi:
s. 88: According to respondents, some Somali parents send their children to Somalia to reacquaint them with that culture. Others suggested that this is a more common practice in the UK than in the Netherlands.Luku 9. Policing and security s. 91 - 98
s. 93: A 2003 study on criminality among ethnic groups found that some groups in the Netherlands appeared to be overrepresented in crime figures, including Somalis
Mutta ei valiteta, Englannissa taitaa olla vielä huonompi tilanne:
s. 93: If I look at Somali youngsters here in the Netherlands, in comparison to the United Kingdom, I think they are doing fine. There they talk with knives and they have a real problem with gangs. (21-year-old man, with a Dutch passport)
Khat on Hollannissakin somalien ongelma:
s. 97: In January 2013 the government introduced a ban on khat, and decided to criminalise khat as a drug. The effects of using khat on Somali communities is high, as khat is often mentioned as one of the possible explanations for why young Somalis may get involved in crime. When families are destabilised, for example because of a parent’s khat addiction, the risk is higher that young people will end up in the street. There are concerns that the drug can cause psychosis or trigger schizophrenia and is the main cause for many social as well as economic problems in Somali families.Luku 11. The role of the media s. 108 - 113
Lehdistö keskittyy negatiivisiin juttuihin:
s. 110: A closer look at the news items shows that in particular the tone of the language used in the headlines is negative: only 1 of the 79 news items in this period could be considered positive, on the recognition of Somalia by the International Monetary Fund. Overall, stereotyping language and negative items dominate, causing negative representation. Examples of such headlines are “Vluchtkerk accommodation amounts to €160,000”, “Who are these Dutch jihad youngsters precisely?” and “Rape concerns Somali refugee camps”. Pejorative language and labels are also found in the text of the news items, such as the frequent use of the term “illegals”.
Jälleen vähän erilainen raportti aikaisempiin verrattuna. Tulokset somalien osalta ovat käytännössä samat kuin Helsingissä, Oslossa ja Malmössa, mutta selitykset erilaisia. Tai oikeastaan tässä Amsterdamin raportissa yritetään aika vähän selittää, mistä somalien ongelmat johtuvat, todetaan vain tilanne. Suomen raportissahan kaikkiin asioihin oli syynä rasismi ja syrjintä.
Jos ajatellaan, että Suomen raportin näkemys rasismista ja syrjinnästä ongelmien selittäjänä pitää paikkansa, niin silloin samoille ongelmille kai voitaisiin Hollannissa ottaa selittäväksi tekijäksi rasismin ja syrjinnän. Mutta kun Umayya Abu-Hannan mukaan Hollannissa ei ole rasismia ja syrjintää. Olisi mielenkiintoista kuulla hänen näkemyksensä tästä raportista.
Tehdään kokeeksi samanlainen sanavertailu kuin Malmön raportissa:
Helsinki 99 kpl
Oslo 60 kpl
Malmö 76 kpl
Amsterdam 29 kpl
Racism, racist ym.
Helsinki 75 kpl
Oslo 6 kpl
Malmö 20 kpl
Amsterdam 0 kpl
Helsinki 27 kpl
Oslo 12 kpl
Malmö 17 kpl
Amsterdam 0 kpl
Mitähän näistä tuloksista voisi päätellä?
a) Hollannissa ei esiinny rasismia tai syrjintää
b) Hollannissa ei huudeta heti rasismia selitykseksi?